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'Cleveland Ohio Politics and government' in subject Civil rights -- Ohio -- Cleveland. in subject [X]
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1Title:  Carl Stokes Papers, Series II     
 Creator:  Stokes, Carl 
 Dates:  1947-1992 
 Abstract:  Carl Stokes was the mayor of Cleveland, Ohio from 1967-1971. Stokes was the first African American mayor of a major American city and the first African American Democrat in the Ohio State Legislature, where he served three terms from 1962-1967. As mayor, Stokes launched a number of programs to alleviate the problems of urban decay. Chief among these was Cleveland: NOW!, a joint public and private program with plans to raise $177 million in its first two years to revitalize Cleveland. The program was discredited due to the Glenville Shootout in July, 1968. Under Stokes, Cleveland City Council passed the Equal Employment Opportunity Ordinance, and HUD resumed funding projects aiding in the construction of over 3,000 new low- and middle-income housing units. Stokes became a newscaster with NBC television in 1972, and returned to his law practice in Cleveland in 1980. In 1983, Stokes was elected a municipal court judge. The collection consists of speeches, correspondence, datebooks, budgets, lectures, newspaper clippings, publications, telegrams, reports, resumes, agendas, press releases, programs, flyers, certificates, legal documents, newsletters, transcripts, proposals, lists, minutes, and a yearbook. 
 Call #:  MS 4800 
 Extent:  1.20 linear feet (3 containers) 
 Subjects:  Stokes, Carl. | African Americans -- Ohio -- Cleveland. | African American mayors -- Ohio -- Cleveland. | African American politicians -- Ohio -- Cleveland. | Cleveland (Ohio). Mayor. | Judges -- Ohio -- Cleveland. | Civil rights -- Ohio -- Cleveland. | Cleveland (Ohio) -- Politics and government.
 
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2Title:  MS 5433 George Forbes Papers, Series II     
 Creator:  George Forbes 
 Dates:  1945-2014 
 Abstract:  George L. Forbes (b. 1931) was arguably the most powerful man in Cleveland politics during the 1970s and 1980s. His position as the President of Cleveland City Council from 1974-1989 was crucial in the relationships he formed with mayors Dennis Kucinich and George Voinovich which were sometimes contentious. He also used this prominent position to promote civil rights and minority-owned businesses. Forbes was born in Memphis, Tennessee, on April 4, 1931, coming to the Cleveland area in the 1950s to earn his degrees from Baldwin Wallace College in 1957 and the Cleveland Marshall College of Law in 1961. A lawyer by profession, Forbes was admitted to both the Ohio and Federal Bars in 1962. In 1963 he was elected to Cleveland City Council, where he served for 27 years. He assisted Carl B. Stokes in his mayoral runs, helped to establish the 21st District Congressional Caucus to improve race relations within the Democratic party, and formed the first African-American law firm in Cleveland. He was also involved in a number of civic organizations, including the Cleveland Chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), where he served as President from 1992-2012, The Urban League, The Council of Economic Opportunity, the Businessmen's Interracial Committee on Community Affairs, the John Harlan Law Club, and the National Association of Defense Lawyers for Criminal Cases. He was acquitted of bribery, extortion, and theft in office in 1979, has plead guilty to ethics violations in dealing with the Ohio Bureau of Workers Compensation in 2007, and was sanctioned by the Ohio Supreme Court in 2008, which put his law license in jeopardy. During his career he has advocated for the poor and minority groups. He has worked against racial discrimination within a number of organizations, including the Regional Transit Authority and the Cleveland Police Force, created a mandate that a minimum percentage of construction work within the city be done by minority contractors/workers, and battled to improve city schools. The collection consists of awards, certificates, correspondence, financial records, legal documents, newspaper clippings, pamphlets, photographs, posters, research materials, reports, speeches, survey, and audiovisual recordings. 
 Call #:  MS 5433 
 Extent:  28.01 linear feet (31 containers, including one oversized container and one oversized folder) 
 Subjects:  African American lawyers -- Ohio -- Cleveland | African American politicians -- Ohio -- Cleveland | Forbes, George L., 1931- | Cleveland (Ohio). City Council. | National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Cleveland Branch. | African Americans -- Ohio -- Cleveland. | Civil rights -- Ohio -- Cleveland. | Political campaigns -- Ohio -- Cleveland. | Cleveland (Ohio) -- Politics and government. | Cleveland (Ohio) -- Race relations.
 
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3Title:  George Forbes Papers     
 Creator:  Forbes, Geoge 
 Dates:  1966-1990 
 Abstract:  George L. Forbes (b. 1931) was arguably the most powerful man in Cleveland, Ohio, politics during the 1970s and 1980s. His position as the President of Cleveland City Council from 1974-1989 was crucial in the relationships he formed with mayors Dennis Kucinich and George Voinovich which were sometimes contentious. He also used this prominent position to promote civil rights and minority-owned businesses. Forbes was born in Memphis, Tennessee, on April 4, 1931, coming to the Cleveland area in the 1950s to earn his degrees from Baldwin Wallace College in 1957 and the Cleveland Marshall College of Law in 1961. A lawyer by profession, Forbes was admitted to both the Ohio and Federal Bars in 1962. In 1963 he was elected to Cleveland City Council, where he served for 27 years. He assisted Carl B. Stokes in his mayoral runs, helped to establish the 21st District Congressional Caucus to improve race relations within the Democratic party, and formed the first African-American law firm in Cleveland. He was also involved in a number of civic organizations, including the Cleveland Chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), where he served as President from 1992-2012, The Urban League, The Council of Economic Opportunity, the Businessmen's Interracial Committee on Community Affairs, the John Harlan Law Club, and the National Association of Defense Lawyers for Criminal Cases. Currently (as of May 2012), he is involved in the Freedom to Marry movement to end marriage discrimination against gay couples in Ohio and has resigned from the NAACP Presidency. George L. Forbes has also been embroiled in numerous controversies during his political life. He was acquitted of bribery, extortion, and theft in office in 1979, has plead guilty to ethics violations in dealing with the Ohio Bureau of Workers Compensation in 2007, and was sanctioned by the Ohio Supreme Court in 2008, which put his law license in jeopardy. During his career he has advocated for the poor and minority groups. He has worked against racial discrimination within a number of organizations, including the Regional Transit Authority and the Cleveland Police Force, created a mandate that a minimum percentage of construction work within the city be done by minority contractors/workers, and battled to improve inner city schools. The collection consists of awards, certificates, correspondence, financial records, legal documents, newspaper clippings, pamphlets, posters, research materials, speeches, and surveys. 
 Call #:  MS 5136 
 Extent:  2.81 linear feet (4 containers and 1 oversize folder) 
 Subjects:  Forbes, George L., 1931- | Cleveland (Ohio). City Council. | National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Cleveland Branch. | African American politicians -- Ohio -- Cleveland. | African American lawyers -- Ohio -- Cleveland. | African Americans -- Ohio -- Cleveland. | Civil rights -- Ohio -- Cleveland. | Political campaigns -- Ohio -- Cleveland. | Cleveland (Ohio) -- Politics and government. | Cleveland (Ohio) -- Race relations.
 
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4Title:  Mary P. Hutchings Papers     
 Creator:  Hutchings, Mary P. 
 Dates:  1931-1991 
 Abstract:  Mary P. Hutchings (1915-1991) was a Cleveland, Ohio, attorney and for ten years the Chief Referee of the Cleveland Civil Service Commission. She was born in Union City, Tennessee. Her family moved to Cleveland and she attended the Cleveland City Schools before graduating from Cleveland Heights High School. She returned to Tennessee and graduated from Lemoyne-Owen College in Memphis and later received a graduate degree from Western Reserve University School of Applied Social Science. In 1951 she joined future jurist Lillian Burke as a graduate of Cleveland Marshall Law School. In addition to private law practice, Hutchings served as an assistant state attorney general for mental hygiene and corrections and a guidance counselor at the Cleveland Job Corps for Women. In her civic life she served on several boards and was active with the NAACP, Women's City Club, National Association of Black Women Attorneys, Americans for Democratic Action, the Glenville YWCA, the Phillis Wheatley Association, Jack & Jill of America and the Delta Sigma Theta Sorority. Her local political activism earned her invitations to Lyndon Johnson's 1965 presidential inauguration and state of the union message to Congress. She supported Carl Stokes' 1965 and 1967 mayoral campaigns. She served as a precinct committeewoman for Wards 19 and 25. In 1938 she married George Hutchings and had one son, Phillip. The collection consists of agendas, cards, certificates, correspondence, invitations, memos, newsletters, newspaper clippings, postcards, proclamations, programs, reports, a resume, speeches, subpoenas, telegrams, and a yearbook. 
 Call #:  MS 4851 
 Extent:  0.80 linear feet (2 containers) 
 Subjects:  Hutchings, Mary P., 1915-1991. | Stokes, Carl. | Democratic Party (Cleveland, Ohio). | LeMoyne-Owen College. | African American women lawyers -- Ohio -- Cleveland. | African American women -- Ohio -- Cleveland. | African American women -- Political activity -- Ohio -- Cleveland. | Women lawyers -- Ohio -- Cleveland. | Women political activists -- Ohio -- Cleveland. | Civil rights -- Ohio -- Cleveland. | Presidents -- United States -- Election -- 1964. | Cleveland (Ohio) -- Politics and government.
 
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